Hypertension is an alternative name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.
Although, Blood pressure remains defined as the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. This pressure depends on the work done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
First, Hypertension and heart disease represents the most significant concerns globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) advises that due to growth in the processed food industry, the amount of salt in meals has increased worldwide, playing a significant role in hypertension.
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Fast facts on hypertension:
Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of mercury (mm Hg), but hypertension is more significant than 130/80 mm Hg.
Severe cases of high blood pressure include stress, but it can appear on its own or as a result of an underlying condition, such as kidney failure.
Poorly managed hypertension can lead to heart attack, stroke, and other problems.
Lifestyle aspects are the best way to address high blood pressure.
What is hypertension?
Hypertension is the remedial term for high blood pressure.
It means that the blood is pushing too hard against the walls of the blood vessels.
About 85 million people in the United States have high blood pressure.
According to the guidelines used by the American Heart Association (AEC) in November 2017, physician guidelines define elevated blood pressure as 130 over 80 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg).
Although the best option is to regulate blood pressure through diet before it reaches the hypertensive phase, there are a wide variety of options to treat it.
Lifestyle changes represent the standard first-line treatment for hypertension.
Regular physical exercise
Doctors recommend that patients with hypertension commit to 30 minutes of aerobic and dynamic exercise at moderate intensity. It can include walking, running, biking, or swimming 5-7 days a week.
It is essential to avoid stress or develop strategies to manage unavoidable stress, as it can help control blood pressure.
The consumption of alcohol, drugs and tobacco, together with unhealthy eating to cope with stress, will add hypertensive problems, so they should remain avoided.
Tobacco can increase blood pressure, so quitting can reduce your risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and other health problems.
People with high blood pressure above 130/80 could use medication to treat hypertension.
Typically, drugs are started one at a time with a small dose. The side effects that are associated with antihypertensive medications are usually negligible.
Eventually, a combination of at least two antihypertensive medications is usually required.
Here are numerous kinds of medications that are available to help lower blood pressure, such as:
- Diuretics, such as thiazides, chlorthalidone, and indapamide
- Alpha and beta-blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Central agonists
- Peripheral adrenergic inhibitor
- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
- Angiotensin receptor blockers
The choice of medicine depends on the individual and any other disease that he may suffer from.
Someone taking antihypertensive medications should be sure to read the directions carefully, especially before taking over-the-counter drugs such as decongestants.
These could interact with medications used to lower blood pressure.
The causes of hypertension are often unknown.
1 in 20 cases of hypertension arises as a result of an underlying disease or medication.
Chronic kidney failure (CKD) is the most common cause of high blood pressure, as the kidneys do not filter fluids. This excess fluid leads to hypertension.
Several risk influences increase the chances of hypertension.
- Age: Hypertension is usually more common in people over 60 years of age. With age, blood pressure can gradually increase as the arteries become stiffer and narrower due to plaque formation.
- Ethnicity: Some cultural groups are more prone to hypertension.
- Height and weight: Obesity or being overweight represents a key risk factor.
- Alcohol and tobacco usage: Intense large amounts of alcohol regularly can increase a person’s blood pressure, as can tobacco.
- Sex: The lifetime risk is similar for men and women, but men are more likely to suffer it at a younger age. The frequency is usually higher in older women.
- Existing health conditions: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can lead to hypertension significantly as people age.
Other contributing factors are:
- Physical inactivity
- A diet rich in salt associated with processed and fatty foods
- Low levels of potassium in the diet
- Consumption of alcohol and tobacco
- Some diseases and medications
A family history of high blood pressure and poorly managed stress can also contribute.
Here is a fully interactive 3D model of hypertension.
Explore the model with the mouse or touch screen to discover more details about hypertension.
As well as, Blood pressure can remain measured with a blood pressure monitor or a specific monitor.
High blood pressure for a short period can be a normal response to many situations. Acute stress and penetrating exercise, for example, can raise it for a short time in a healthy person.
For this reason, a diagnosis of hypertension usually requires several readings that show elevated blood pressure for a long time.
The systolic pressure reading of 130 mm Hg is the heart’s pressure to pump blood throughout the body. The diastolic of 80 mm Hg is what the heart carries out when it relaxes and recharges with blood.
The AEC guidelines define the following blood pressure ranges:
If the reading displays a hypertensive crisis when measuring blood pressure, wait 2-3 minutes and repeat the test.
If the analysis is the same or higher, it is a medical emergency.
The person should seek immediate care at the nearest hospital.
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